Inflammation

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  • Inflammation… a complex immune response

    Inflammation is a complex immune response involving innate immune cells, adaptive immune cells, and a variety of mediators characterized by pleiotropic activity.

    Different cell types can secrete same cytokines or a single cytokine can act on several different cell types, and similar functions can be stimulated by different cytokines.

    Traditional approach blocking a single pathway or a small number of target molecules could not adequately address the complexity involved in the immune-mediated inflammation.

    Induction of Immune-regulatory circuit could be a better choice as it concurrently handles multiple pro-inflammatory pathways.

    Modified form Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Volume 105(Issue 2):Pages 417–430, 2016

  • Our approach to inflammation…MDSC, Treg, and TGR5

    Multilateral, simultaneous control of inflammatory cells and cytokines at the site of action is the most efficient approach to controlling inflammatory diseases.

    Shaperon’s multi-functional compounds, TGR5 agonist, demonstrate excellent control of inflammation by down-regulating multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines by epigenetic reprogramming.

    In addition, Shaperon’s TGR5 agonist concurrently increases the number of immune-regulatory cells, critical to pro-inflammatory pathways.

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  • NuGel® for Atopic Dermatitis

    Shaperon’s NuGel® down-regulates TSLP which is crucial pro-inflammatory cytokine in pathogenesis of AD.

    Infiltrating inflammatory cells (Th17 cells, mast cell, eosinophil, and neutrophil) and inflammatory cytokines are down-regulated while the production of IFN-gamma is up-regulated.

    NuGel® also shows significant improvement in clinical symptoms of atopic dermatitis by normalizing TH1/TH2 balance.

    Skin remodeling is promoted through up-regulation of various fiber proteins.

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  • NuSepin® for Sepsis

    A plethora of pathogenic signaling pathways are simultaneously activated in septic patients.

    Shaperon’s strategy of targeting intrinsic immune regulatory mechanisms shows a drastic effect in inhibiting broad spectrum of pathways that are activated in sepsis.

    NuSepin® increases the number of immune-regulatory MDSCs and anti-inflammatory signatures of MDSCs by epigenetic reprogramming that are crucial in resolving systemic inflammation during sepsis.

    Frontiers in Immunology 18;9:1984. 2018

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  • NuCerin® for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Misfolded and aggregated amyloid β bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating macrophages, and trigger inflammatory response.

    Neuro-inflammatory mediators contribute to neuronal apoptosis and impair cognition and memory eventually.

    Shaperon’s NuCerin® reduces loads of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer mice and brain inflammation by regulating the activation of microglia and reactive astrocytes.

    Thus, neuro-inflammatory modulator NuCerin® prevents loss of neurons and memory thereby.

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  • NuColin® for Ulcerative Colitis

    Ulcerative colitis is caused by abnormal activation of immune system in the gut.

    Shaperon’s NuColin® significantly decreases immune cells (T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells) recruitment in the bowel via TGR5 pathway.

    NuColin® markedly decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α in DSS-induced mice colitis model